Books That Changed the World: The 50 Most Influential Books in Human History by Book

A 208 page book written in 2009 by Journalist and Author Andrew Taylor. Books from every field of human creativity and intellectual endeavor - from poetry to politics, from fiction to philosophy, from theology to anthropology, and from economics to physics – have been selected to create a rounded and satisfying picture of how 50 towering achievements of the human intellect have built our societies, shaped our values, enhanced our understanding of the nature of the world, enabled technological advancements, and reflected our concerns and dilemmas, strengths and failings. In a series of engaging and lively essays, Andrew Taylor sets each work and its author firmly in historical context, summarizes the content of the work in question, and explores its wider influence and legacy. A fascinating and richly informative read.

  1. The Iliad by <a href="/authors/283">Homer</a>

    The Iliad is an epic poem in dactylic hexameters, traditionally attributed to Homer. Set in the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of Ilium by a coalition of Greek states, it tells of the battles and e...


  2. The Histories of Herodotus by <a href="/authors/410">Herodotus</a>

    The Histories of Herodotus is considered one of the seminal works of history in Western literature. Written from the 450s to the 420s BC in the Ionic dialect of classical Greek, The Histories serve...


  3. The Republic by <a href="/authors/793">Plato</a>

    The Republic is a Socratic dialogue by Plato, written c. 380 B.C.E.. It is one of the most influential works of philosophy and political theory, and Plato's best known work. In Plato's fictional di...


  4. Analects by <a href="/authors/1051">Confucius</a>

    Lunyu, also known as the Analects of Confucius, are considered a record of the words and acts of the central Chinese thinker and philosopher Confucius and his disciples, as well as the discussions ...


  5. The Odes by <a href="/authors/1724">Horace</a>

    The Odes (Latin: Carmina) are a collection in four books of Latin lyric poems by Horace. The Horatian ode format and style has been emulated since by other poets. Books 1 to 3 were published in 23 ...


  6. Geography by <a href="/authors/1173">Ptolemy</a>

    The Geography (Latin: Geographia, Cosmographia; Greek: Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις Geographike Hyphegesis) is Ptolemy's main work besides the Almagest. It is a treatise on cartography and a compilation of ...


  7. Kama Sutra by <a href="/authors/1725">Vātsyāyana</a>

    The Kama Sutra (Sanskrit: कामसूत्र About this sound pronunciation (help·info), Kāmasūtra) is an ancient Indian Hindu text widely considered to be the standard work on human sexual behavior in Sansk...


  8. The Quran by <a href="/authors/838">Various Authors</a>

    The Qur’an is the central religious text of Islam, also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran or Al-Qur’ān. Muslims believe the Qur’an to be the book of divine guidance and dire...


  9. Canon of Medicine by <a href="/authors/1726">Avicenna</a>

    The Canon of Medicine (Arabic: القانون في الطب‎ al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian philosopher Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) and completed in 1025. It prese...


  10. The Canterbury Tales by <a href="/authors/233">Geoffrey Chaucer</a>

    With their astonishing diversity of tone and subject matter, The Canterbury Tales have become one of the touchstones of medieval literature. Translated here into modern English, these tales of a mo...


  11. The Prince by <a href="/authors/631">Niccolo Machiavelli</a>

    Il Principe (The Prince) is a political treatise by the Florentine public servant and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli. Originally called De Principatibus (About Principalities), it was origi...


  12. Atlas by <a href="/authors/1727">Gerardus Mercator</a>

    Gerardus Mercator (born 5 March 1512 in Rupelmonde, County of Flanders (in modern Belgium), died 2 December 1594 in Duisburg, United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, (modern-day Germany)) was a carto...


  13. Don Quixote by <a href="/authors/133">Miguel de Cervantes</a>

    Alonso Quixano, a retired country gentleman in his fifties, lives in an unnamed section of La Mancha with his niece and a housekeeper. He has become obsessed with books of chivalry, and believes th...


  14. The Bible by <a href="/authors/839">Christian Church</a>

    The Authorized King James Version is an English translation of the Christian Bible begun in 1604 and completed in 1611 by the Church of England. Printed by the King's Printer, Robert Barker, the fi...


  15. First Folio by <a href="/authors/284">William Shakespeare</a>

    Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies is the 1623 published collection of William Shakespeare's plays. Modern scholars commonly refer to it as the First Folio. Printed in folio...


  16. An Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Living Beings by <a href="/authors/1728">William Harvey</a>

    Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus (An Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Living Beings) is the best-known work of the physician William Harvey...


  17. Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems by <a href="/authors/841">Galileo</a>

    The Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems was a 1632 Italian language book by Galileo Galilei comparing the Copernican system with the traditional Ptolemaic system. It was translated to L...


  18. Principia Mathematica by <a href="/authors/840">Issac Newton</a>


  19. One Thousand and One Nights by <a href="/authors/341">India/Iran/Iraq/Egypt</a>

    One Thousand and One Nights is a collection of Middle Eastern and South Asian stories and folk tales compiled in Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age. It is often known in English as the Arabian Ni...


  20. A Dictionary of the English Language by <a href="/authors/1168">Samuel Johnson</a>

    Published on 15 April 1755 and written by Samuel Johnson, A Dictionary of the English Language, sometimes published as Johnson's Dictionary, is among the most influential dictionaries in the histor...


  21. The Sorrows of Young Werther by <a href="/authors/311">Johann Wolfgang von Goethe</a>

    The Sorrows of Young Werther is an epistolary and loosely autobiographical novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, first published in 1774; a revised edition of the novel was published in 1787. Werthe...


  22. Common Sense by <a href="/authors/627">Thomas Paine</a>


  23. The Wealth of Nations by <a href="/authors/835">Adam Smith</a>

    An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (generally referred to by the short title The Wealth of Nations) is the magnum opus written by Scottish economist and moral philosophe...


  24. Lyrical Ballads by <a href="/authors/285">William Wordsworth</a>, <a href="/authors/1729">Samuel Taylor Coleridge</a>

    Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems is a collection of poems by William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, first published in 1798 and generally considered to have marked the beginning of ...

    - Google

  25. Pride and Prejudice by <a href="/authors/93">Jane Austen</a>

    The book is narrated in free indirect speech following the main character Elizabeth Bennet as she deals with matters of upbringing, marriage, moral rightness and education in her aristocratic socie...


  26. A Christmas Carol by <a href="/authors/102">Charles Dickens</a>

    A Christmas Carol (originally, A Christmas Carol in Prose, Being a Ghost Story of Christmas) is a novella by English author Charles Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) about a curmudgeon and h...


  27. Communist Manifesto by <a href="/authors/87">and</a>, <a href="/authors/626">Karl Marx</a>, <a href="/authors/1043">Friedrich Engels</a>

    Manifesto of the Communist Party (German: Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei), often referred to as The Communist Manifesto, was published on February 21, 1848, and is one of the world's most infl...


  28. Moby Dick by <a href="/authors/149">Herman Melville</a>

    First published in 1851, Melville's masterpiece is, in Elizabeth Hardwick's words, "the greatest novel in American literature." The saga of Captain Ahab and his monomaniacal pursuit of the white wh...


  29. Uncle Tom's Cabin by <a href="/authors/687">Harriet Beecher Stowe</a>

    Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly is an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Published in 1852, the novel had a profound effect on attitudes toward African America...


  30. Madame Bovary by <a href="/authors/150">Gustave Flaubert</a>

    For daring to peer into the heart of an adulteress and enumerate its contents with profound dispassion, the author of Madame Bovary was tried for "offenses against morality and religion." What shoc...


  31. On the Origin of Species by <a href="/authors/633">Charles Darwin</a>

    Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, published on Thursday 24 November 1859, is a seminal work of scientific literature considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology. Its full title...


  32. On Liberty by <a href="/authors/1041">John Stuart Mill</a>

    On Liberty is a philosophical work by 19th century English philosopher John Stuart Mill, first published in 1859. To the Victorian readers of the time it was a radical work, advocating moral and ec...


  33. War and Peace by <a href="/authors/105">Leo Tolstoy</a>

    Epic in scale, War and Peace delineates in graphic detail events leading up to Napoleon's invasion of Russia, and the impact of the Napoleonic era on Tsarist society, as seen through the eyes of fi...


  34. The Complete Sherlock Holmes by <a href="/authors/302">Arthur Conan Doyle</a>

    Since his first appearance in Beeton’s Christmas Annual in 1887, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes has been one of the most beloved fictional characters ever created.


  35. The Interpretation of Dreams by <a href="/authors/584">Sigmund Freud</a>

    This book introduces Freud's theory of the unconscious with respect to dream interpretation. Dreams, in Freud's view, were all forms of "wish-fulfillment" — attempts by the unconscious to resolve a...


  36. The Protocols of the Elders of Zion by <a href="/authors/310">Unknown</a>

    The Protocols of the Elders of Zion or The Protocols of the Meetings of the Learned Elders of Zion is an antisemitic hoax purporting to describe a Jewish plan for global domination.[1] It was first...


  37. Relativity by <a href="/authors/491">Albert Einstein</a>

    In clear, concise language that is accessible to all, Albert Einstein's brilliant theory is explained and its implications discussed.


  38. The Poems of Wilfred Owen by <a href="/authors/1730">Wilfred Owen</a>

    Wilfred Edward Salter Owen MC (18 March 1893 – 4 November 1918) was an English poet and soldier, one of the leading poets of the First World War. His shocking, realistic war poetry on the horrors o...


  39. Ulysses by <a href="/authors/108">James Joyce</a>

    Ulysses chronicles the passage of Leopold Bloom through Dublin during an ordinary day, June 16, 1904. The title parallels and alludes to Odysseus (Latinised into Ulysses), the hero of Homer's Odyss...


  40. Lady Chatterley's Lover by <a href="/authors/119">D. H. Lawrence</a>

    Lyric and sensual, D.H. Lawrence's last novel is one of the major works of fiction of the twentieth century. Filled with scenes of intimate beauty, explores the emotions of a lonely woman trapped i...


  41. The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money by <a href="/authors/469">John Maynard Keynes</a>

    The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money was written by the English economist John Maynard Keynes. The book, generally considered to be his magnum opus, is largely credited with creatin...


  42. The Catcher in the Rye by <a href="/authors/18">J. D. Salinger</a>

    The Catcher in the Rye is a 1945 novel by J. D. Salinger. Originally published for adults, the novel has become a common part of high school and college curricula throughout the English-speaking wo...


  43. If This Is a Man by <a href="/authors/196">Primo Levi</a>

    If This Is a Man is a work of witness by the Italian author Primo Levi. It was influenced by his experiences in the concentration camp at Auschwitz during the Second World War. It can be described ...


  44. The Second Sex by <a href="/authors/908">Simone de Beauvoir</a>

    The Second Sex (French: Le Deuxième Sexe, June 1949) is one of the best-known works of the French existentialist Simone de Beauvoir. It is a work on the treatment of women throughout history and of...


  45. Nineteen Eighty Four by <a href="/authors/4">George Orwell</a>

    The story follows the life of one seemingly insignificant man, Winston Smith, a civil servant assigned the task of perpetuating the regime's propaganda by falsifying records and political literatur...


  46. Things Fall Apart by <a href="/authors/80">Chinua Achebe</a>

    A novel of great power that turns the world upside down. The Nigerian novelist Achebe reached back to the early days of his people's encounter with colonialism, the 1890's, though the white man and...

    - Time

  47. Silent Spring by <a href="/authors/466">Rachel Carson</a>

    Silent Spring is a book written by Rachel Carson and published by Houghton Mifflin in September 1962. The book is widely credited with helping launch the environmental movement. When Silent Spri...


  48. Quotations from Chairman Mao by <a href="/authors/936">Mao</a>

    Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong (simplified Chinese: 毛主席语录; pinyin: Máo zhǔxí yǔlù), better known in the West as The Little Red Book, was published by the Government of the People's Republic of...


  49. Harry Potter And The Philosopher's Stone by <a href="/authors/106">J. K. Rowling</a>

    Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone is the first novel in the Harry Potter series written by J. K. Rowling and featuring Harry Potter, a young wizard. It describes how Harry discovers he is a ...